Our democracies repeatedly fail to safeguard the future. From pensions to pandemics, health and social care through to climate, biodiversity and emerging technologies, democracies have been unable to deliver robust policies for the long term. In this book, Graham Smith asks why. Exploring the drivers of short-termism, he considers ways of reshaping legislatures and constitutions and proposes strengthening independent offices whose overarching goals do not change at every election. More radically, Smith argues that forms of participatory and deliberative politics offer the most effective democratic response to the current political myopia, as well as a powerful means of protecting the interests of generations to come.
This book, the first of a two volume study, provides an historical account of complaints against Metropolitan police officers between formation of the force in 1829 and codification of remedies for misconduct under the Police Act 1964. A complainant centred standpoint is developed to counteract the marginalization of the interests of victims, which is held to demonstrate that the drive for effective and efficient law enforcement has overshadowed the public interest in holding officers to account for misconduct. After officer accountability before the criminal courts diminished in the nineteenth century, missed opportunities to reform complaints procedures following commissions of inquiry in 1906-08, 1928 and 1960-62 are discussed. The second volume of the study, Combating Impunity: Complaints Against Metropolitan Police, 1964-2021, will examine the part played by complainants and civil society organisations in combating police impunity in the citizen oversight era.
Maximizing reader insights into the key scientific disciplines of Machine Tool Metrology, this text will prove useful for the industrial-practitioner and those interested in the operation of machine tools. Within this current level of industrial-content, this book incorporates significant usage of the existing published literature and valid information obtained from a wide-spectrum of manufacturers of plant, equipment and instrumentation before putting forward novel ideas and methodologies.Providing easy to understand bullet points and lucid descriptions of metrological and calibration subjects, this book aids reader understanding of the topics discussed whilst adding a voluminous-amount of footnotes utilised throughout all of the chapters, which adds some additional detail to the subject. Featuring an extensive amount of photographic-support, this book will serve as a key reference text for all those involved in the field.
The Second Edition of this successful textbook provides a clear, well-written introduction to both the fundamental principles of optics and the key aspects of photonics to show how the subject has developed in the last few decades, leading to many modern applications. Optics and Photonics: An Introduction, Second Edition thus provides a complete undergraduate course on optics in a single integrated text, and is an essential resource for all undergraduate physics, science and engineering students taking a variety of optics based courses. Specific changes for this edition include: New material on modern optics and photonics Rearrangement of chapters to give a logical progression, comprising groups of chapters on geometric optics, wave optics and photonics Many more worked examples and problems Substantial revisions to chapters on Holography, Lasers and the Interaction of Light with Matter Solutions can be found at: www.booksupport.wiley.com
'Which test should I apply?' During the many years of working with ecologists, biologists and other environmental scientists, this is probably the question that the authors of this book hear the most often. The answer is always the same and along the lines of 'What are your underlying questions?', 'What do you want to show?'. The answers to these questions provide the starting point for a detailed discussion on the ecological background and purpose of the study. This then gives the basis for deciding on the most appropriate analytical approach. Therefore, a better start ing point for an ecologist is to avoid the phrase 'test' and think in terms of 'analy sis'. A test refers to something simple and unified that gives a clear answer in the form of a p-value: something rarely appropriate for ecological data. In practice, one has to apply a data exploration, check assumptions, validate the models, per haps apply a series of methods, and most importantly, interpret the results in terms of the underlying ecology and the ecological questions being investigated. Ecology is a quantitative science trying to answer difficult questions about the complex world we live in. Most ecologists are aware of these complexities, but few are fully equipped with the statistical sophistication and understanding to deal with them.