Many readers will doubtless be astonished to learn that animals were being fired aloft in U.S. and Soviet research rockets in the late 1940s. In fact most people not only believe that the Russian space dog Laika was the first canine to be launched into space, but also that the high-profile, precursory Mercury flights of chimps Ham and Enos were the only primate flights conducted by the United States. In fact, both countries had sent literally dozens of animals aloft for many years prior to these events and continued to do so for many years after. Other latter-day space nations, such as France and China, would also begin to use animals in their own space research.
Animals in Space will explain why dogs, primates, mice and other rodents were chosen and tested, at a time when dedicated scientists from both space nations were determined to establish the survivability of human subjects on both ballistic and orbital space flights. It will also recount the way this happened; the secrecy involved and the methods employed, and offer an objective analysis of how the role of animals as spaceflight test subjects not only evolved, but subsequently changed over the years in response to a public outcry led by animal activists. It will explore the ways in which animal high-altitude and space flight research impacted on space flight biomedicine and technology, and how the results - both successful and disappointing - allowed human beings to then undertake that same hazardous journey with far greater understanding and confidence.
This book is intended as a detailed yet highly readable and balanced account of the history of animal space flights, and the resultant application of hard-won research to space technology and astrobiology. It will undoubtedly become the ultimate authority on animal space flights.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions.
It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book expands on the classical statistical multivariate analysis theory by focusing on bilinear regression models, a class of models comprising the classical growth curve model and its extensions. In order to analyze the bilinear regression models in an interpretable way, concepts from linear models are extended and applied to tensor spaces. Further, the book considers decompositions of tensor products into natural subspaces, and addresses maximum likelihood estimation, residual analysis, influential observation analysis and testing hypotheses, where properties of estimators such as moments, asymptotic distributions or approximations of distributions are also studied. Throughout the text, examples and several analyzed data sets illustrate the different approaches, and fresh insights into classical multivariate analysis are provided. This monograph is of interest to researchers and Ph.D. students in mathematical statistics, signal processing and other fields where statistical multivariate analysis is utilized. It can also be used as a text for second graduate-level courses on multivariate analysis.
This timely book allows clinicians of the nervous system, who are increasingly confronted with degenerative and psychiatric diseases, to familiarize themselves with the cerebral amygdala and the anatomical structures involved in these pathologies. Its striking photos of cerebral sections and dissections should help MRI specialists to more precisely study the detailed images provided by their constantly evolving equipment.
This eagerly awaited book offers a unique, comprehensive scientific study of the anatomy of the organ of female sexual pleasure. The authors use macroscopic and microscopic research to guide the reader from the glans, the visible part of the clitoris, where they explore the impressive sensory corpuscles, to the hidden roots of the bulbo-clitoral organ. They show its complexity, its exact location within the external genitalia and its intimate relationship with the urethro-vaginal pyramid.They also remind us that throughout history there has been a failure to understand this organ and explain that this misunderstanding remains the cause of persistent excisions, criminal mutilating practices that have not yet been eradicated.Using extensive iconography, they demonstrate throughout this book that the bulbo-clitoral organ is an exceptional natural treasure that every woman possesses and that every man should know well.
Bimetallic nanoparticles, also called nanoalloys, are at the heart of nanoscience because of their ability to tune together composition and size for specific purposes. By approaching both their physical and chemical properties, Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties provides a comprehensive reference to this research field in nanoscience by addressing the subject from both experimental and theoretical points of view, providing chapters across three main topics:
Growth and structural properties
Thermodynamics and electronic structure of nanoalloys
Magnetic, optic and catalytic propertiesThe growth and elaboration processes which are the necessary and crucial part of any experimental approach are detailed in the first chapter. Three chapters are focused on the widely used characterization techniques sensitive to both the structural arrangements and chemistry of nanoalloys. The electronic structure of nanoalloys is described as a guide of useful concepts and theoretical tools. Chapters covering thermodynamics begin with bulk alloys, going to nanoalloys via surfaces in order to describe chemical order/disorder, segregation and phase transitions in reduced dimension. Finally, the optical, magnetic and catalytic properties are discussed by focusing on nanoparticles formed with one element to track the modifications which occur when forming nanoalloys. The range and detail of Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties makes it an ideal resource for postgraduates and researchers working in the field of nanoscience looking to expand and support their knowledge of nanoalloys.
This book presents the latest information on tropical tree physiology, making it a valuable research tool for a wide variety of researchers. It is also of general interest to ecologists (e.g. Ecological Society of America; > 3000 or 4000 members at annual meeting), physiologists (e.g. American Society of Plant Biologists; > 2,000 members at annual meeting), and tropical biologists (e.g. Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, ATBC; > 500 members at annual meeting). (American Geophysical Union(AGU), > 20000 members at annual meeting). Since plant physiology is taught at every university that offers a life sciences, forestry or agricultural program, and physiology is a focus at research institutes and agencies worldwide, the book is a must-have for university and research institution libraries.
The purpose of this textbook is to enable a Neuroscientist to discuss the structure and functions of the brain at a level appropriate for students at many levels of study including undergraduate, graduate, dental or medical school level. It is truer in neurology than in any other system of medicine that a firm knowledge of basic science material, that is, the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nervous system, enables one to readily arrive at the diagnosis of where the disease process is located and to apply their knowledge at solving problems in clinical situations. The authors have a long experience in teaching neuroscience courses at the first or second year level to medical and dental students and to residents in which clinical information and clinical problem solving are integral to the course.
This essential book unravels the link between regional cultures, adaptive reuse of existing buildings and sustainability. It concentrates on the social dimensions relating to Brazilian architect Lina Bo Bardi's late adaptive reuse projects and works from the 1960s to the early 1990s, interpreting her themes, technical sources and design strategies of the creation of luxury as sustainability.The edited book charts how Lina Bo Bardi "invented" her own version of sustainability, introduced this concept through her landscape and adaptive reuse designs and through ideas about cross-cultures in Brazil. The book offers a critical reflection, exploration and demonstration of the importance of adaptive reuse in the landscape and related themes for researchers and provides researchers and students new material on sustainability for further study.In the context of the plurality of revisions of Lina Bo Bardi's work, this book brings about a refreshed interpretation of her integrative approach to adaptive reuse of buildings and landscapes as a significant contribution to the sustainability debate. It offers new insights into the construction of discourses about sustainability from the perspective of one of the key architects in the period to operate in the interface between modernity and tradition.- Dr Fabiano Lemes de Oliveira, Senior Lecturer, University of Portsmouth (UK)Adaptability is one of the most important words in sustainable architecture today. From this perspective, this book looks at the work of a master of Brazilian modernism with lessons to be learnt on how to qualify indoor and outdoor spaces in social, environmental and architectural terms. Adaptive strategies as those seen throughout the work of Bo Bardi are key instrument/tools/concept to sustainable buildings and cities.- Professor Joana Carla Soares Goncalves, FAU, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil) The year 2015 marked the centenary of Lina Bo Bardi. This book is looking at Bardi's work through the perspective of adaptive reuse. Bringing together specialists on sustainability with specialists of Lina's work, the book generates an interesting new layer of discussion on the work of an architect that was never shy of controversy.
- Associate Professor Fernando Luiz Lara, University of Texas at Austin (USA)This collection of essays makes a very important and engaging contribution to suggest that to take Lina as an inspiration is to deal with her contradictions and to evaluate the stakes of what she struggled with in a 21st century world. What the authors gathered here and have laid out is a very timely invitation to discern "Lessons from Lina" in relationship to today's pressing issues of architecture and environment, sustainability, recycling, and developing an ethical design position in a world of diminishing resources and escalating challenges.-Prof Barry Bergdoll, Columbia University and MoMA, New York (USA)The book features a Foreword by Barry Bergdoll.
Winner of the Curtin University Humanities Research Award 2017 for Best Book of the Year (Oct. 2017). Here the judges' appraisal: "An elegantly conceptualised and carefully crafted volume that represents the work of the twentieth century Brazilian architect Lina Bo Bardi through the lens of urgent contemporary questions of sustainability, adaptive re-use and ethical design. The book brings together a multidisciplinary and international collection of authors and addresses a global readership. It is beautifully presented and intelligently edited." (Jury, Book Award 2017) Winner of the Curtin University Humanities Research Award 2017 for Best Chapter of the Year (Sept. 2017): Annette Condello. Chapter 3 "Salvaging the Site's Luxuriance: Lina Bo Bardi - Landscape Architect." Here the judges appraisal:"A richly textured investigation of Lina Bo Bardi, a complex, fascinating and important Italian-born Brazilian architect, designer and co-founder of the magazine Habitat. [...] This chapter is a thoughtful and respectful but also critical piece, combining thorough research with deft analysis and carefully selected images, and the publication has been highly recommended by leading academics and curators." (Jury, Book Award 2017)
This book provides reflection on the increasingly blurry boundaries that characterize the human-animal relationship. In the Anthropocene humans and animals have come closer together and this asks for rethinking old divisions. Firstly, new scientific insights and technological advances lead to a blurring of the boundaries between animals and humans. Secondly, our increasing influence on nature leads to a rethinking of the old distinction between individual animal ethics and collectivist environmental ethics. Thirdly, ongoing urbanization and destruction of animal habitats leads to a blurring between the categories of wild and domesticated animals. Finally, globalization and global climate change have led to the fragmentation of natural habitats, blurring the old distinction between in situ and ex situ conservation. In this book, researchers at the cutting edge of their fields systematically examine the broad field of human-animal relations, dealing with wild, liminal, and domestic animals, with conservation, and zoos, and with technologies such as biomimicry. This book is timely in that it explores the new directions in which our thinking about the human-animal relationship are developing. While the target audience primarily consists of animal studies scholars, coming from a wide range of disciplines including philosophy, sociology, psychology, ethology, literature, and film studies, many of the topics that are discussed have relevance beyond a purely theoretical one; as such the book also aims to inspire for example biologists, conservationists, and zoo keepers to reflect on their relationship with animals.
Intervision ist eine spezielle Form des Gruppencoachings, bei der sich Gruppen ohne externe Fachperson treffen, um ihre berufliche Arbeit zu reflektieren ein Setting, das sich seit Jahren bewährt. Der Autor, Psychologe und erfahrener Organisationsberater, liefert die Grundlagen für den Einstieg in die Praxis der Intervision. Er beschreibt ein einfach nachvollziehbares 6-stufiges Grundmodell und die dazugehrigen Methoden. Schritt-für-Schritt-Anleitungen begleiten die professionelle Einführung und Gestaltung der Intervision in Unternehmen.
This mind-opening take on indigenous psychology presents a multi-level analysis of culture to frame the differences between Chinese and Western cognitive and emotive styles. Eastern and Western cultures are seen here as mirror images in terms of rationality, relational thinking, and symmetry or harmony. Examples from the philosophical texts of Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, and classical poetry illustrate constructs of shading and nuancing emotions in contrast to discrete emotions and emotion regulation commonly associated with traditional psychology. The resulting text offers readers bold new understandings of emotion-based states both familiar (intimacy, solitude) and unfamiliar (resonance, being spoiled rotten), as well as larger concepts of freedom, creativity, and love. Included among the topics: The mirror universes of East and West.In the crucible of Confucianism.Freedom and emotion: Daoist recipes for authenticity and creativity. Chinese creativity, with special focus on solitude and its seekers.Savoring, from aesthetics to the everyday.What is an emotion? Answers from a wild garden of knowledge. Understanding Emotion in Chinese Culture has a wealth of research and study potential for undergraduate and graduate courses in affective science, cognitive psychology, cultural and cross- cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, multicultural studies, Asian psychology, theoretical and philosophical psychology, anthropology, sociology, international psychology, and regional studies.
This book is a comprehensive, theoretical, practical, and thorough guide to XAFS spectroscopy. The book addresses XAFS fundamentals such as experiments, theory and data analysis, advanced XAFS methods such as operando XAFS, time-resolved XAFS, spatially resolved XAFS, total-reflection XAFS, high energy resolution XAFS, and practical applications to a variety of catalysts, nanomaterials and surfaces. This book is accessible to a broad audience in academia and industry, and will be a useful guide for researchers entering the subject and graduate students in a wide variety of disciplines.
This atlas is unique in comparing the two disciplines of dental implant surgery and tooth-preserving surgery with respect to common procedures, problems, and failures and in providing excellent guidance on the prevention and management of complications. The etiology of a wide variety of implant-related and non-implant-related complications and failures is carefully explained. Since many complications have their roots in oral and periodontal surgical maneuvers, these maneuvers are themselves discussed and extensively illustrated. The most frequently used tooth preservation procedures are also fully described, with emphasis on correct surgical technique as a means to avoid complications. The use of these procedures is constantly weighed against the effects of tooth removal and insertion of dental implants. The text is complemented by the inclusion of a substantial number of helpful references. While the atlas is intended primarily for dentists involved in outpatient implant dentistry and oral surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgeons will also find the descriptions of innovative techniques or maneuvers to be of interest, including those relating to the selection of incision and flap design and the sinus floor elevation techniques.
The first-ever multivolume treatment of the issues in legal philosophy and general jurisprudence, from both a theoretical and a historical perspective. The work is aimed at jurists as well as legal and practical philosophers. Edited by the renowned theorist Enrico Pattaro and his team, this book is a classical reference work that would be of great interest to legal and practical philosophers as well as to jurists and legal scholar at all levels. The work is divided The theoretical part (published in 2005), consisting of five volumes, covers the main topics of the contemporary debate; the historical part, consisting of six volumes (Volumes 6-8 published in 2007; Volumes 9 and 10, published in 2009; Volume 11 published in 2011 and volume 12 forthcoming in 2015), accounts for the development of legal thought from ancient Greek times through the twentieth century. The entire set will be completed with an index.?Volume 7: The Jurists' Philosophy of Law from Rome to the Seventeenth Century
edited by Andrea Padovani and Peter SteinVolume 7 is the second of the historical volumes and acts as a complement to the previous Volume 6, discussing from the jurists' perspective what that previous volume discusses from the philosophers' perspective. The subjects of analysis are, first, the Roman jurists' conception of law, second, the metaphysical and logical presuppositions of late medieval legal science, and, lastly, the connection between legal and political thought up to the 17th century. The discussion shows how legal science proceeds at every step of the way, from Rome to early modern times, as an enterprise that cannot be untangled from other forms of thought, thus giving rise to an interest in logic, medieval theology, philosophy, and politics-all areas where legal science has had an influence. Volume 8: A History of the Philosophy of Law in The Common Law World, 1600-1900
by Michael LobbanVolume 8, the third of the historical volumes, offers a history of legal philosophy in common-law countries from the 17th to the 19th century. Its main focus (like that of Volume 9) is on the ways in which jurists and legal philosophers thought about law and legal reasoning. The volume begins with a discussion of the `common law mind' as it evolved in late medieval and early modern England. It goes on to examine the different jurisprudential traditions which developed in England and the United States, showing that while Coke's vision of the common law continued to exert a strong influence on American jurists, in England a more positivist approach took root, which found its fullest articulation in the work of Bentham and Austin. ?
This volume explores the interaction of poetry and mathematics by looking at analogies that link them. The form that distinguishes poetry from prose has mathematical structure (lifting language above the flow of time), as do the thoughtful ways in which poets bring the infinite into relation with the finite. The history of mathematics exhibits a dramatic narrative inspired by a kind of troping, as metaphor opens, metonymy and synecdoche elaborate, and irony closes off or shifts the growth of mathematical knowledge.
The first part of the book is autobiographical, following the author through her discovery of these analogies, revealed by music, architecture, science fiction, philosophy, and the study of mathematics and poetry. The second part focuses on geometry, the circle and square, launching us from Shakespeare to Housman, from Euclid to Leibniz. The third part explores the study of dynamics, inertial motion and transcendental functions, from Descartes to Newton, and in 20th c. poetry. The final part contemplates infinity, as it emerges in modern set theory and topology, and in contemporary poems, including narrative poems about modern cosmology.
This book presents an emerging new vision of the brain, which is essentially expressed in computational terms, for non-experts. As such, it presents the fundamental concepts of neuroscience in simple language, without overwhelming non-biologists with excessive biological jargon. In addition, the book presents a novel computational perspective on the brain for biologists, without resorting to complex mathematical equations.It addresses a comprehensive range of topics, starting with the history of neuroscience, the function of the individual neuron, the various kinds of neural network models that can explain diverse neural phenomena, sensory-motor function, language, emotions, and concluding with the latest theories on consciousness. The book offers readers a panoramic introduction to the "new brain" and a valuable resource for interdisciplinary researchers looking to gatecrash the world of neuroscience.
This book highlights the implications of nanotechnology in plant sciences, particularly its potential to improve food and agricultural systems, through innovative, eco-friendly approaches, and as a result to increase plant productivity. Topics include various aspects of nanomaterials: biophysical and biochemical properties; methods of treatment, detection and quantification; methods of quantifying the uptake of nanomaterials and their translocation and accumulation in plants. In addition, the effects on plant growth and development, the role of nanoparticles in changes in gene and protein expression, and delivery of genetic materials for genetic improvement are discussed. It also explores how nanotechnology can improve plant protection and plant nutrition, and addresses concerns about using nanoparticles and their compliances.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the application potential of nanoparticles in plant science and serves as a valuable resource for students, teachers, researchers and professionals working on nanotechnology.
This book examines the mutual recognition of judicial decisions in European criminal law as a cornerstone of judicial co-operation in criminal matters in the European Union. Providing comprehensive content and combining theoretical and practical aspects, it covers all of the major issues surrounding mutual recognition. The book analyses its definition, genesis, principles, case law, implementation and evaluation. Special attention is given to mutual recognition measures, namely European arrest warrant (i.e. surrender procedure), mutual recognition of custodial sentences, and measures involving deprivation of liberty, mutual recognition of probation measures and alternative sanctions, mutual recognition of financial penalties, mutual recognition of confiscation orders, the European supervision order in pre-trial procedures (i.e. mutual recognition of supervision measures as an alternative to provisional detention), the European investigation order (i.e. free movement of evidence), and the European protection order (i.e. mutual recognition of protection orders). Instead of focusing solely on a criminal law approach, the book also considers the subject from the perspectives of European Union law and International criminal law.
This book examines the effect of the adoption of the United Nations Committee on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency in five common law jurisdictions, namely Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. It examines how each of those states has adopted, interpreted and applied the provisions of the Model Law, and highlights the effects of inconsistencies by examining jurisprudence in each of these countries, specifically how the Model Law affects existing principles of recognition of insolvency proceedings.The book examines how the UNCITRAL Guide to enactment of the Model Law has affected the interpretation of each of its articles and, in turn, the courts' ability to interpret and hence give effect to the purposes of the Model Law. It also considers the ability of courts to refer to amendments made to the Guide after enactment of the Model Law in a state, thereby questioning whether the current inconsistencies in interpretation can be overcome by UNCITRAL amending the Guide.
This go-to reference work surveys the current state of knowledge in the field of metal soap-related degradation phenomena in art works. It contains detailed descriptions and images of the different phenomena and addresses the practical aspects of soap formation, preventive conservation, and treatment.The occurrence of metal soaps is one of the defining issues in the conservation of painted surfaces, and one that presently leaves innumerable open questions. It is estimated that around 70% of paintings in museum collections are affected by some form of metal soap-related degradation. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the detection and characterization of these compounds through interdisciplinary approaches including conventional spectroscopy and microscopy as well as emerging synchrotron-based techniques.
This book for the first time captures a panoramic overview of the state of knowledge of metal soaps related to both scientific analysis and implications for conservation and treatment. It also critically examines open questions. The book is accessible to audiences with varied backgrounds (e.g. conservators, students of conservation science) while simultaneously presenting the technical details indispensable for academics and researchers active in this field.